Temperament research in children

Temperament research in children

Paper instructions:
repare a 2-page outline of your Research Proposal. The outline should provide an overview of the main elements of your proposal. It should include:
An introduction
A brief statement of purpose
The rationale for conducting the study
Your hypotheses and research questions
Methods (participants, procedures, materials, instruments), and appropriate statistical test(s) for data analysis
List of at least three relevant articles for the proposal
I have already have one article and it is uploaded above. in which you can use as the starting point.

Research Evaluation Worksheet

Title: The Role of Classroom Quality in Ameliorating the Academic and Social Risks Associated with Difficult Temperament

Full Article Reference (APA style):

Curby, Timothy W.; Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Edwards, Taylor; and Pérez-Edgar, Koraly, The Role of Classroom Quality in Ameliorating the Academic and Social Risks Associated with Difficult Temperament (2011). Educational Psychology Papers and Publications. Paper 122. http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/edpsychpapers/122?

The research study is outlined well in the abstract statement. The key terminologies are stated to link the first grades with the quality of learning and the contentious infancy temperaments.


a. Is the need for the study clearly stated in the introduction? Explain by using information presented in the literature review. The research is introduced with a clear statement of the reason for the study. The literature review contains content that extensively shows a gap that necessitates the study about quality of class work and temperament of young children.

b. What is the research hypothesis or question?
The research question is?how do the children’s difficult temperaments in infancy influences their academic and social outcomes in first grade (Pg. 176).

c. What are the variables of interest (independent and dependent variables)?
The dependent variables are academic outcomes in first grade, while the independent variable is the temperament of the children.

d. How are the variables operationally defined?


a. Sample Size (Total): ____1364____________ Size Per Group/Cell: ____1 group___________

A sample of 1364 children within 15 years age is involved in the study.

b. Were the methods and procedures described so that the study could be replicated without further information? What information, if any, would you need to replicate or reproduce this study?
The research extensively covers the critical ways that are required such that any other researcher can progress with the study without seeking for more information. An important aspect of this study I feel you need are children of the same age group.


a. How were participants selected and recruited?
The participants were selected in phases as the children advanced into different grades. The phases were based on the different grades of study and age from 1991 to 2005.

b. Were subjects randomly selected?
The mode of selection is random because the team of data collection comes from various places and the participating children come from various ethnic backgrounds.

c. Were there any biases in sampling? Explain
The data collected about the participants shows that there is no balance between the races, an indication that there was no form of specific selection procedure.

d. Were the samples appropriate for the population to which the researcher wished to generalize?
There is no evident bias in sampling because the population is distributed unevenly; hence the proportion of every race is relative to the population in the region that the study was carried out.
e. What are the characteristics of the sample populations?

The samples were collected from various locations, hence an appropriate representative sample of participants. The collected sample population is made up of children within the same age group in every phase, for the four phases considered in the study.

Research Design (check which design applies)

___x____ Single group, time series study
_______ Multiple baseline (sequential) design: ______________
_______ Single group, no measurement
_______ Single group with measurement: Pre ______ During _____ Post _____
_______ Two groups classic experimental versus control group, randomly assigned
_______ (quasi-experimental) two groups experimental versus control group,
not randomly assigned
_______ Correlation research, not manipulated, degree of relationship
_______ Descriptive research (qualitative study)
_______ Natural observation
_______ Analytical research
_______ Interview research
_______ Historical study
_______ Survey research
_______ Legal study
_______ Ethnography research
_______ Policy analysis
_______ Fieldwork research
_______ Evaluation study
_______ Phenomenology
_______ Grounded theory
_______ Protocol analysis (collection and analysis of verbatim reports)
_______ Case study, no measurement
_______ Case study, with measurement: Pre _________ During _______ Post _________
_______ Developmental research
_______ Longitudinal (same group of subjects over period of time)
_______ Cross-sectional (subjects from different age groups compared)
_______ Cross-sequential (subjects from different age groups, shorter period of time)
_______ Correlation, more than two groups: control, treatment, and other treatment comparisons
_______ Factorial design, two or more groups: other treatment differences, no untreated controls
_______ Two or more dependent variables (MANOVA)
_______ Other design: __________________________________________________________

The research was designed to carry out a single group that was accessed in every grade and age bracket. The research takes a time series design from 1991 to 2007, where the number of participants seems to decrease with time.

Consider the Following Questions:
The research did not use control groups since all the children under study were within the same conditions.

a. Was a control group used? Yes ______ No ___x___ If yes, complete b, c, and d below.

b. Was the control method for the study appropriate?

c. What variable was being controlled for?

d. In the case of an experimental study, were subject randomly assigned to groups?



a. Describe the Dependent Measure(s)/Instruments used: Age and grades in the schooling system
b. Describe the Measurement/Instrument Validity Information: specific age and grade levels
c. Describe the Measurement/Instrument Reliability Information: sample identification approach where various methods in different parts were used by researchers.


Consider the Following Questions:

a. For all measures (measures to classify subjects, dependent variables, etc.) was evidence of reliability and validity provided, either through summarizing the data, or by referring the reader to an available source for that information?
Yes, the data in this research is collected from an available source in the following link . The reliability and validity of this research lies on the secondary and primary sources used

b. Do the reliability and validity data justify the use of the measure?
It is a valid approach since the learners are enrolled with specific age limits; therefore, the measurements are reliable and valid.

c. Are the measures appropriate (if not, why not)?
Yes, the grades and the appropriate age groups are for every phase of measurements considered in this research. There is no use of standard deviations and means since the test is extensively used to show correlations between variables.

d. Are multiple measures used, particularly those that sample the same domains, or constructs but with different methods (e.g., self-report, rating scales, self-monitoring)?
Multiple measures and rations were used to analyze the data such as direct observation.

f. If human observers, judges, or raters were involved, was inter-observer or inter-rater agreement (reliability) assessed? Was it obtained for a representative sample of the data? Did the two raters do their ratings independently? Was their reliability satisfactory?
This study is generated entirely by human researchers who had a common guideline of assessing the participant children. The individual researchers pooled their findings for a common analysis and rating to produce reliable results free from bias.

Independent and Dependent Variables

a. What is/are the Independent Variable(s): temperament

b. What is/are the Dependent Variable(s): academic

Data Analysis

Scales of Measurement (check those that apply):

Nominal _______ Ordinal _______ Interval _______ Ratio __x_____
a. What type of statistical techniques are used?
Regression and statistical distributions

b. What type of tables and graphs are used?
Tables and line graphs were used to show the correlation and relationships between the variables.

Consider the Following Questions:

a. Were tests of significance used and reported appropriately (e.g., with sufficient detail to understand what analysis was being conducted)?
There was nothing that multiple methods like questionnaires, interviewing, observations and testing were employed to detect the appropriate issues within the children that were appropriate to the qualification for study.
c. Other comments on the reported statistical analyses?
The researchers constructed a reliable and satisfactory representative data set for assessment.


Evaluate the Summary and Conclusions of the study (Usefulness):

Describe the Strength(s) and Limitation(s) of the Study:

Describe what you learned from the study:

List any remaining questions you have about the study:

The conclusion comes up with direct answers to the test hypothesis; hence the discussion is relevant to the topic. However, the study is limited to western countries and does not cover the entire world. It is important to learn that characteristics of children have a great influence on their academic achievements.


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