A structure of nursing knowledge
The theoretical works are nursing frameworks that have been organized into types, and the theorists who have been selected for each type. The identification of selected works within each of the types is arbitrary at best. Effort has been made to reflect the level of abstraction for each type or preference of the theorist. Types of knowledge, levels, and examples of each within the structure are illustrated in Table (see below), and discussed in the following text.
Knowledge Structure Levels With Selected Examples for Illustration
|Metaparadigm||Human beings, environment, health, and nursing|
|Conceptual models||Neuman’s systems model|
|Grand theory||Neuman’s optimal client stability|
|Theory||Flexible line of defense moderate optimal client stability|
|Middle-range theory||Maintaining optimal client stability with structured activity (body recall) in a community setting for healthy aging|
Modified from Alligood, M. R. (2014). Nursing theory: Utilization & application (5th ed.). St Louis: Mosby; Fawcett, J., & DeSanto Madeya, S. (2013). Contemporary nursing knowledge: Conceptual models of nursing and nursing theories (3rd ed.). Philadelphia: F. A. Davis.
Types of Nursing Theoretical Works
Nursing conceptual models
Nursing theories and grand theories
Boykin and Schoenhofer
Erickson, Tomlin, and Swain
Husted and Husted
Middle-range nursing theories
Wiener and Dodd
Eakes, Burke, and Hainsworth
Ruland and Moore
Questions for Analysis and Critical Reflection of Theoretical Works
• Clarity: How clear is this theory?
• Simplicity: How simple is this theory?
• Generality: How general is this theory?
• Accessibility: How accessible is this theory?
• Importance: How important is this theory?
Can you define each of them?